THE FRENCH REVOLUTION | History | Class IX | Chapter-1
|189 One-liner Q & A of the French Revolution|
The Complete Revision of All Important Points of the French Revolution1. On which day was Paris on alarm?
Ans: 14th July 1789
2. Whom did the king command to move into the city?
Ans: The troops
3. What rumour spread in Paris?
Ans: Rumours spread in Paris that king had commanded his troops to move in the city and he would soon order the troops to open fire upon the citizens.
4. How many people gathered in front of the town hall?
Ans: Some 7000 men and women
5. Why did they break into a number of government buildings?
Ans: In search of arms and hoarded ammunition
6. Why did a group of several hundred people storm the fortress prison Bastille?
Ans: In search of hoarded ammunition
7. How many prisoners were there in Bastille?
8. Why was Bastille hated by all?
Ans: Because it stood for the despotic power of the king.
9. Who bought the stone fragments of Bastille?
Ans: Those who wished to keep the souvenir of its destruction.
10. Who became the king of France in 1774?
Ans: Louis XVI
11. Which family did the king belong to?
Ans: The king belonged to the bourbon family.
12. At what age did Louis become the king of France?
Ans: Louis XVI was 20 years old when he became the king of France.
13. Who was Louis married to?
Ans: He was married to Marie Antoniette.
14. Upon his accession, what did he find?
Ans: He found an empty treasury.
15. Whom did France help under Louis Xi to gain their independence?
Ans: France helped the thirteen American colonies to gain independence.
16. What do you mean by the term Old Regime?
Ans: The term Old Regime is usually used to describe the society and institutions of France before 1789.
17. How many peasants were there in France?
Ans: 90 percent of the total population.
18. What do you mean by the term “tithes”?
Ans: The tax taken by the churches from peasants was called tithes.
19. Who were the members of the first two estates?
Ans: Clergy and Nobility.
20. What was the direct tax called?
21. Who had the burden of taxes of the state?
Ans: The third estate alone had the burden of taxes.
22. What services were the peasants obliged to render to the lord?
Ans: The services rendered by the peasants are – to work in his house and fields, to serve in the army or to participate in building roads.
23. What was the population of France in 1715?
Ans: 23 million
24. What was the population of France in 1789?
Ans: 28 million
25. What was the staple food of the people of France?
26. What is Subsistence Crisis?
Ans: An extreme situation where the basic means of livelihood are endangered is called subsistence crisis.
27. What idea did the philosopher John Locke give?
Ans: John Locke sought to refute the Doctrine of Divine and absolute right of the monarch.
28. What idea did the philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau give?
Ans: He gave the idea that there should be a relation between people and their representatives.
29. What idea did Montesquieu give?
Ans: Montesquieu gave the idea of the division of power within the government between the legislature, the executive and the judiciary.
30. Where were the ideas of the philosophers discussed?
Ans: The ideas of the philosophers were discussed in salons and coffee houses.
31. Why could the king not pass the proposal for new taxes alone?
Ans: Because he had to call the estates general to pass the proposal for new taxes.
32. When was the last time meeting of the estates general called?
Ans: In 1614
33. When did Louis XVI call the meeting of the Estates General?
Ans: On 5th May 1789
34. Where were the delegates hosted?
Ans: A resplendent hall in Versailles was prepared to host the delegates.
35. How many representatives did the first and the second estates send?
Ans: The first and the second estates sent 300 representatives each.
36. How were the representatives of the first and the second estates seating in the assembly?
Ans: The representatives of the first and the second estates were seating in rows facing each other on two sides.
37. How many members were sent by the third estate?
Ans: 600 members
38. Who were standing at the back in the assembly?
Ans: The representatives of the third estate.
39. Who represented the third estate?
Ans: The third estate was represented by its more prosperous and educated members.
40. Who were denied entry to the assembly?
Ans: Peasants, artisans and women were denied entry to the assembly.
41. How many letters had the representatives of the third estate brought with themselves?
Ans: 40000 letters containing the grievances and demands of those who could not come.
42. On which principle had the estates general voted in the past?
Ans: On the principle that each estate had one vote.
43. What did the third estate demand?
Ans: The representatives of the third estate demanded that voting now be conducted by the assembly as a whole, where each member would have one vote.
44. What happened when the king rejected the proposal of the third estate?
Ans: The members of the third estate walked out of the assembly in protest.
45. How did the representatives view themselves?
Ans: The representatives of the third estate viewed themselves as spokesmen for the whole French Nation.
46. When and where did they assemble?
Ans: They assembled on 20th June on the ground of Versailles.
47. What did the newly declared National Assembly swear?
Ans: The newly elected National Assembly swore that they would not disperse till they had drafted a constitution for France that would limit the powers of the monarch.
48. Who led them?
Ans: They were led by Mirabeau and Abbe Sieyes.
49. Who was Mirabeau?
Ans: Mirabeau was born in a noble family but was convinced of the need to do away with a society of feudal privilege.
50. What did Mirabeau do?
Ans: Mirabeau brought a journal and delivered powerful speeches to the crowds assembled at Versailles.
51. Who was Abbe Sieyes?
Ans: Abbe Sieyes was a priest.
52. What was “What is the third estate”?
Ans: “What is the third estate” was an influential pamphlet written by Abbe Sieyes.
53. Where was the National Assembly Busy?
Ans: In drafting constitution at Versailles.
54. What had meant a bad harvest?
Ans: Severe winter
55. What did the crowds of angry women do after spending hours in long queues?
Ans: After spending hours in long queues at bakery, crowds of angry women stormed into the shops.
56. When and by whom was the fortress prison Bastille stormed?
Ans: Bastille was stormed by the agitated crowd on 14th July 1789.
57. What rumour spread in the countryside from village to village?
Ans: In the countryside rumours spread from village to village that the lords of manor had hired bands of brigands who were on their way to destroy the ripe crops.
58. Who were caught in a frenzy of fear?
59. What did the peasants do in a frenzy of fear?
Ans: Peasants in several districts seized hoes and pitchforks and attacked Chateaux.
60. What did the peasants loot?
Ans: The peasants looted the hoarded grain.
61. What did the peasants burn?
Ans: The peasants burnt down documents containing records of manorial dues.
62. What did the nobles do when the peasants attacked Chateaux?
Ans: A large number of nobles fled from their homes and many of them migrated to neighbouring countries.
63. What did Louis XI finally do?
Ans: Louis XI finally accorded recognition to the National Assembly and accepted the principle that his powers would from now be checked by a constitution.
64. How did the Assembly abolish the feudal system of obligation and taxes?
Ans: The assembly abolished the feudal system of obligation and taxes by passing a decree on the night of 4th August 1789.
65. Members of which state were forced to give up their privileges?
66. Whose lands were confiscated?
Ans: Lands owned by church were confiscated.
67. When did the National Assembly complete the draft constitution?
Ans: The National Assembly completed the draft constitution in 1791.
68. What was the main purpose of the constitution?
Ans: The main object of the constitution was to limit the powers of the monarch.
69. Who were now assigned the powers instead of being concentrated in one hand?
Ans: Powers instead of being concentrated in the hands of one person, were now separated and assigned to different institutions – the legislature, the executive and the judiciary.
70. How did France become a constitutional monarchy?
Ans: Powers instead of being concentrated in the hands of one person, were now separated and assigned to different institutions – the legislature, the executive and the judiciary. This made France a constitutional monarchy.
71. Who had the right to choose the National Assembly?
Ans: Citizens voted for a group of electors, who in turn chose the National Assembly.
72. Who were Active Citizens?
Ans: Only men above 25 years of age who paid taxes equal to at least 3 days of a labourers wage were given the status of Active Citizens, that is, they were entitled to vote.
73. Who were Passive Citizens?
Ans: The remaining men and all women who did not pay taxes equal to at least 3 days of a lobourers wage were given the status of Passive Citizens.
74. What was the eligibility to qualify as an elector and then as a member of the National Assembly?
Ans: To qualify as an elector and then as a member of the National Assembly, a man had to belong to the highest bracket of taxpayers.
75. With what did the constitution of France begin?
Ans: The constitution of France began with a Declaration of the Rights of Man & Citizen.
76. What were established as “Natural & Inalienable” rights?
Ans: Rights such the right to life, freedom of speech, freedom of opinion, equality before law, were established as “Natural & Inalienable” rights, that is, they belonged to each human being by birth and could not be taken away.
77. Who had to protect each citizen’s natural rights?
Ans: It was the duty of the state to protect each citizen’s natural rights.
78. What does the broken chain stand for?
Ans: The broken chain stands for the act of becoming free.
79. What does ‘The bundle of rods of fasces’ mean?
Ans: It means that one rod can be easily broken, but not an entire bundle. Strength lies in unity.
80. What do you mean by ‘The eye within a triangle radiating light’?
Ans: The all – Seeing Eye stands for knowledge. The rays of the sun will drive away the clouds of ignorance.
81. What is sceptre?
Ans: Sceptre is a symbol of power.
82. What do you mean by “Snake biting its tail to form a ring”?
Ans: It is a symbol of Eternity. A ring has neither beginning nor end.
83. What do you mean by “Red Phrygian Cap”?
Ans: It was the cap worn by a slave upon becoming free.
84. What are the National Colours of France?
Ans: Blue, White and Red are the National Colours of France.
85. What do you mean by “Law Tablet”?
Ans: It means that law is same for all, and all are equal before it.
86. What did Louis XVI do after signing the constitution?
Ans: After signing the constitution, Louis XVI entered into secret negotiations with the king Prussia.
87. Against whom did the National Assembly declare war?
Ans: The National Assembly declared war against Prussia & Austria.
88. When did the National Assembly declare war against Prussia & Austria?
Ans: The National Assembly declared war against Prussia & Austria in April 1792.
89. Why were the rulers of other neighbouring countries worried by the developments in France?
Ans: The rulers of other neighbouring countries were worried by the developments in France because they thought that like the citizens of France their citizens might also revolt.
90. What had the kings of the neighbouring countries planned?
Ans: The kings of the neighbouring countries had planned to send troops to put down the events that had been taking place in France since the summer of 1789.
91. Who composed the song “Marseillaise”?
Ans: The song “Marseillaise”was composed by the poet, Roget de L’isle.
92. Who sang Marseillaise for the first time?
Ans: The Volunteer who came to join the army sang Marseillaise for the first time while marching towards Paris from Marseilles.
93. What is the National Anthem of France?
Ans: “Marseillaise”is the National Anthem of France.
94. What were the women doing while the men were away fighting at the front?
Ans: While the men were away fighting at the front, women were left to cope with tasks of earning a living and looking after the families.
95. What was the problem with the constitution of France?
Ans: The constitution of 1791 in France gave political rights only to richer sections of society.
96. What were the important rallying points?
Ans: Political clubs became an important rallying point for people who wished to discuss government policies and plan their own forms of actions.
97. Which was the most successful political club?
Ans: Jacobin Club was the most successful political club.
98. How did the Jacobin Club get its name?
Ans: The Jacobin Club got its name from the former convent of St. Jacob in Paris.
99. What were the women doing throughout the period?
Ans: The women had been active throughout the period. They formed their own political clubs.
100. Who were the members of the Jacobin Club?
Ans: The members of the Jacobin Club were belonged mainly to the less prosperous sections of society like small shopkeepers, artisans such as shoemakers, pastry cooks, watch-makers, printers, as well as servants and daily wage workers.
101. Who was the leader of the Jacobin Club?
Ans: Maximilian Robespierre was the leader of the Jacobin Club.
102. What did the Jacobins start wearing?
Ans: A large group among the Jacobins decided to start wearing long striped trousers similar to those worn by dock workers.
103. What were the Jacobins known as/called?
Ans: The Jacobins came to be known as the sans-culottes, literally meaning ‘those without knee breeches.
104. What did the sans-culottes men wear in addition?
Ans: Sans-culottes men wore in addition the red cap that symbolized liberty.
105. What were the women not allowed to wear?
Ans: The women were not allowed to wear red cap.
106. What happened in the palace of Tuileries?
Ans: On the morning of August 10 they stormed the palace of Tuileries, massacred the king’s guards and held the king himself as hostage for several hours.
107. What happened to the royal family?
Ans: The assembly voted to imprison the royal family.
108. What was the newly elected assembly called?
Ans: The newly elected assembly was called the convention.
109. When was France declared a republic?
Ans: On 21 September 1792
110. What do you mean by a republic?
Ans: A republic is a form of government where the people elect the government including the head of the government,
111. What punishment was given to Louis XVI?
Ans: Louis XVI was sentenced to death by a court on the charge of treason.
112. Where and when was Louis XVI executed?
Ans: Louis XVI was executed publicly at the Place de la Concorde on 21st January 1793.
113. Which period is referred to as the reign of terror?
Ans: The period from 1793 to 1794 is referred to as the reign of terror.
114. What was Robespierre’s policy?
Ans: Robespierre followed a policy of severe control and punishment.
115. Whom did Robespierre see as being ‘enemies’ of the republic?
Ans: Robespierre saw ex-nobles and clergy, members of other political parties, even members of his own party who did not agree with his methods as being enemies of the republic.
116. What happened to those whom Robespierre saw as being enemies of the republic?
Ans: Those whom Robespierre saw as being enemies of the republic were arrested, imprisoned and then tried by a revolutionary tribunal. If the court found them guilty, they were guillotined.
117. What was guillotine?
Ans: Guillotine was a device consisting of two poles and a blade with which a person was beheaded.
118. Who invented guillotine?
And: Dr. Guillotine
119. How did guillotine get its name?
And: The device got its name by Dr. Guillotine who invented it.
120. What were peasants forced to do?
Ans: The peasants were forced to transport their grain to the cities and sell it at prices fixed by the government.
121. What was forbidden to eat?
Ans: The use of more expensive white flour was forbidden.
122. What were all the citizens required to eat?
Ans: All citizens were required to eat the pain d’egalite (equality bread), a loaf made of whole wheat.
123. How else was equality sought to be practiced?
Ans: Equality was also sought to be practiced through forms of speech and address.
124. Instead of traditional address what were all French men & women called henceforth?
Ans: Instead of the traditional Monsieur (Sir) and Madame (Madam) all French men & women were henceforth called Citoyen & Citiyenne (citizen).
125. What were the buildings of the churches converted into?
Ans: The buildings of the churches were converted into barracks and offices.
126. What did the supporters of Robespierre begin demanding?
Ans: Robespierre pursued his policies so relentlessly that even his supporters began to demand moderation.
127. When and why was Robespierre arrested?
Ans: Robespierre was convicted by court in July 1794, arrested and on the next day sent to the guillotine.
128. Who got the opportunity to seize power after the fall of the Jacobin Government?
Ans: After the fall of the Jacobin Government, middle classes got the opportunity to seize power.
129. When were the non-propertied sections of society once again denied the right to vote?
Ans: After the fall of the Jacobin Government the new constitution denied the non-propertied sections of society right to vote.
130. How many legislative councils were provided in the new constitution?
Ans: The new constitution provided for two elected legislative councils.
131. Who elected the directory?
Ans: The two legislative council elected the directory.
132. What was directory?
Ans: Directory was an executive made up of five directors (members).
133. What was the reason of the directory to be instable?
Ans: The directors often clashed with the legislative councils, who then sought to dismiss them.
134. What paved the way for the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte?
Ans: The political instability of the directory paved the way for the rise of a military dictator, Napoleon Bonaparte.
135. How can you say that women were active during the revolution?
Ans: From the very beginning women were active participants in the events which brought so many changes in the French society.
136. What did most women of the third estate do?
Ans: Most women of the third estate had to work for a living.
137. What was the hope of the women involved in the revolution?
Ans: The women involved in the revolution hoped that their involvement would pressurize the revolutionary government.
138. What did the women work as?
Ans: The women worked as seamstresses or laundresses, sold flowers, fruits and vegetables at market or were employed as domestic servants in the houses of prosperous people.
139. What did most women lack?
Ans: Most women did not have access to education or job training.
140. Whose daughters could study at a convent?
Ans: Only the daughters of nobles or wealthier members of the third estate could study at a convent, after which their families arranged a marriage for them.
141. What was the condition of the working women?
Ans: Working women had also to care for their families, that is, cook, fetch water, queue up for bread and look after their children.
142. Why did women start their own political clubs and newspaper?
Ans: Women started their own political clubs and newspapers in order to discuss and voice their interests.
143. How many woman’s clubs came up in different French cities?
Ans: About sixty women’s clubs came up in different French cities.
144. Which was the most famous women’s club?
Ans: The Society of Revolutionary and Republican Woman was the most famous women’s club.
145. What was the main demand of the women?
Ans: One of the main demands of the women was that women enjoy the same political rights as men.
146. Why were the women disappointed by the Constitution of 1791?
Ans: Women were disappointed that the Constitution of 1791 reduced them to Passive Citizens.
147. What were the demands of the women?
Ans: The women wanted the right to vote, to be elected to the assembly and to hold political ofiice.
148. What was compulsory for all girls?
Ans: Together with opening of the state schools, schooling was made compulsory for all girls.
149. Who tried to improve the lives of women?
Ans: In early years the revolutionary government introduced laws to improve the lives of women.
150. What could girls no longer be forced to do?
Ans: The girls could no longer be forced into a marriage against their will by their fathers.
151. Which law was issued about marriage?
Ans: Marriage was made into a contract entered into freely and registered under civil law. Divorce was made legal.
152. Who could apply for divorce now?
Ans: Divorce now could be applied for by both men and women.
153. What things could women do now?
Ans: Women could now train for job, could become artists or run small businesses.
154. When were the women’s clubs closed?
Ans: During the reign of terror the new government issued laws ordering closure of the women’s clubs and banning their political activities.
155. What was the condition of the prominent women during the reign of terror?
Ans: Many prominent women were arrested and many of them were executed.
156. How long did women’s movements for voting rights and equal wages continue?
Ans: Women’s movements for voting rights and equal wages continued through the next two centuries in many countries in the world.
157. How was the fight for vote carried?
Ans: The fight for vote was carried through an International Suffrage Movement during the late nineteenth century and the early twentieth century.
158. Why was the example of the political activities of the French women kept alive?
Ans: The example of the political activities of the French women was kept alive as an inspiring memory.
159. In which year did the women of France win the right to vote?
Ans: In 1946
160. Name any one most revolutionary social reform of the Jacobin Regime?
Ans: One of the most revolutionary social reforms of the Jacobin Regime was the abolition of slavery in French colonies.
161. Who were the important suppliers of commodities such as tobacco, indigo, sugar and coffee?
Ans: The colonies in the Caribbean – Martinique, Guadeloupe and San Domingo were important suppliers of commodities such as tobacco, indigo, sugar and coffee.
162. Why was there a shortage of labour on the plantations?
Ans: The reluctance of Europeans to go and work in distant and unfamiliar lands meant a shortage of labour on the plantations.
163. When did the slave trade begin?
Ans: The slave trade began in the seventeenth century.
164. What do you mean by the triangular slave trade?
Ans: The slave trade between Europe, Africa and the Americas is known as the triangular slave trade.
165. Where did the French merchants buy slaves?
Ans: The French merchants sailed from the ports of Bordeaux and Nantes to the African coast where they bought slaves from local chieftains.
166. How did the French merchants bring slaves to the Caribbean?
Ans: Branded and shackled, the slaves were packed tightly into ships for three months long voyage across the Atlantic to the Caribbean.
167. Who bought the slaves from the French merchants in the Caribbean?
Ans: The plantation owners bought the slave from the French merchants in the Caribbean.
168. How was the growing demand in European markets for sugar, coffee and indigo met?
Ans: The growing demand in European markets for sugar, coffee and indigo was met by the exploitation of slave labour.
169. What was the importance of slave trade for port cities like Bordeaux and Nantes?
Ans: Port cities like Bordeaux and Nantes owned their economic prosperity to the flourishing slave trade.
170. What did the National Assembly do to abolish slavery?
Ans: The National Assembly held long debates about whether the rights of man should be extended to all French subjects including those in the colonies.
171. When were the slaves in the French overseas possessions freed?
Ans: The convention in the 1794 legislated to free all slaves in the French overseas possessions.
172. Who reintroduced slavery in France?
Ans: Ten years later Napoleon reintroduced slavery in France.
173. How did the plantation owners understand their freedom?
Ans: The plantation owners understood their freedom as including the right to enslave African Negros in pursuit of their economic interests.
174. When was slavery finally abolished in French colonies?
Ans: Slavery was finally abolished in French colonies in 1808.
175. Who passed laws to translate the ideals of liberty and equality into everyday practice?
Ans: The revolutionary governments took it upon themselves to pass the laws that would translate the ideals of liberty and equality into everyday practice.
176. Name any one important law that came into effect soon after the storming of Bastille?
Ans: One important law that came into effect soon after the storming of Bastille in the summer of 1789 was the abolition of censorship.
177. What was proclaimed to be a natural right?
Ans: The Declaration of the rights of Man and Citizen proclaimed freedom of speech and expression to be a natural right.
178. What do you mean by the “Freedom of Press”?
Ans “Freedom of Press” means that opposing views of events can be expressed.
179. What attracted a large number of people?
Ans: Plays, songs and festive processions attracted a large number of people.
180. When did Napoleon Bonaparte crown himself emperor of France?
Ans: Napoleon Bonaparte crowned himself emperor of France in 1804.
181. What did Napoleon Bonaparte set out to conquer?
Ans: Napoleon Bonaparte set out to conquer neighbouring European countries, dispossessing dynasties and creating kingdoms where he placed member of his family.
182. What did Napoleon see his role as?
Ans: Napoleon saw his role as a modernizer of Europe.
183. Name some laws introduced by Napoleon?
Ans: Napoleon introduced many laws such as the protection of private property and a uniform system of weights and measures provided by the decimal system.
184. What was Napoleon seen as?
Ans: Many people saw Napoleon as a liberator who would bring freedom for the people.
185. What was the Napoleonic Armies come to be viewed as?
Ans: Soon the Napoleonic Armies came to be viewed as an invading force.
186. When and where was Napoleon defeated?
Ans: Napoleon was defeated in 1815 at Waterloo.
187. Which revolutionary ideas of Napoleon had a long effect?
Ans: The revolutionary ideas of liberty and modern laws had an impact on people long after Napoleon had left.
188. What were the most important legacy of the French Revolution?
Ans: The ideas of liberty and democratic rights were the most important legacy of the French Revolution.
189. Name the two individuals of India who responded to the ideas coming from revolutionary France?
Ans: Tipu Sultan and Raja Ram Mohan Roy